PHYSICS
S.S.C > PHYSICS

# 11 - Electricity

 11.1 Electric Charge 11.1 Electric Charge 11.1.1 Electric Force 11.1.2 Electric Field 11.1.3 Electric Potential, Potential Difference 11.2 EMF 11.3 Electric Current 11.4 Ohms Law, Resistance, Specific Resistance, Factors influencing Resistance, Electric Shock 11.4 Ohms Law, Resistance, Specific Resistance, Factors influencing Resistance, Electric Shock 11.4 Ohms Law, Resistance, Specific Resistance, Factors influencing Resistance, Electric Shock 11.4 Ohms Law, Resistance, Specific Resistance, Factors influencing Resistance, Electric Shock 11.4 Ohms Law, Resistance, Specific Resistance, Factors influencing Resistance, Electric Shock 11.4.1 Kirchoff’s Laws 11.5 Series and Parallel Connection of Resistances 11.6 Heating Effect of Electric Current, Safety Fuses 11.6 Heating Effect of Electric Current, Safety Fuses 11.7 Electric Power

# 1 - Heat

 1. Introduction 2. Temperature 3. Heat 4. Specific Heat 5. Latent Heat 6. Thermal Equilibrium 7. Temperature and Kinetic Energy 8. Method of Mixtures principle 9. Internal Energy of the System 10. Absolute temperature 11. Evaporation, Boiling and Condensation 12. Latent heat of Vaporization

# 2 – Chemical Equations & Reactions

 2.1. Introduction 2.2. Atoms, molecules, Elements 2.2.1. Compounds, Mixtures 2.2.2.Atomic Mass, Molecular Mass 2.2.2.Atomic Mass, Molecular Mass 2.2.3.Gram Atomic Mass, Gram Molecular Mass 2.2.4. Molar & Mole Concept 2.3. Some daily life examples of Chemical Reactions 2.4. Chemical Equations – Writing Chemical Equations 2.4.1.Skeletal Chemical Equations 2.4.2.Balancing Chemical Equations, Writing Symbols of Physical States 2.5. Types of Chemical Reactions 2.5.1 Combinations in Reactions: (Exothermic Chemical Reactions, Endothermic Reactions) 2.5.2 Decomposition Reactions: Thermal, Electrolytic 2.5.2.1.Photochemical Reactions 2.5.3 Displacement Reactions 2.5.4 Double Displacement Reactions 2 .6 Oxidation and Reduction 2.7. Corrosion and Prevention of Corrosion 2.7. Corrosion and Prevention of Corrosion 2.8. Rancidity

# 3 - Reflection of Light

 3.1. Theories of Light 3.1. Theories of Light 3.1.1 Fermat Principle 3.2 Reflection – Its Laws 3.3 Mirrors 3.4 Plane Mirrors – Image Formation 3.3.2 Spherical Mirrors, Convex, Conclave Mirrors 3.3.2 Spherical Mirrors, Convex, Conclave Mirrors 3.4 Rules for Ray Diagrams by using Laws of Reflection 3.4.1 Images formed by Spherical Mirrors 3.4.2 Formula for Spherical Mirrors – Focal Length and Sign Convention 3.4.3 Application of Reflection

# 4 - Acids, Bases and Salts

 4.1 Introduction (for Recalling only) to Acids & Bases 4.2 Chemical Properties of Acids & Bases 4.2.1 Acids & Bases in Laboratory – Indicators 4.2.2 Reaction of Acids & Bases with Metals 4.2.3 Reaction of Acids & Bases with each other (Neutralization) 4.2.4 Reaction of Acids & Bases with Metal Carbonates 4.2.4.1. Reaction of Acids & Bases with Metal Hydrogen Carbonates 4.2.5 Reaction of Acids & Bases with Metallic Oxides with Acids 4.2.6 Reaction of Acids & Bases with Non-Metallic Oxides with Bases 4.3 What do Acids have in common? What do Bases have in common? 4.4 Importance of p H in Everyday Life 4.4.1 Sensitive of Plants and Animals to pH 4.4.2 pH of Soils, pH in Digestive System, pH Tooth Decay 4.4.2 pH of Soils, pH in Digestive System, pH Tooth Decay 4.4.2 pH of Soils, pH in Digestive System, pH Tooth Decay 4.5 Self defense by Animals and Plants through Chemical Warfare 4.6 Some Naturally Occurring Acids 4.7 Salts 4.7.1 Nature of Salts 4.7.2 pH Of Salts 4.7.3 Sources of Common Salt 4.7.4 Common Salt – a raw material for other Chemicals 4.7.5 Na-OH 4.7.5.1. Bleaching Powder 4.7.5.2.Baking Soda 4.7.5.3.NaHCO3 Uses 4.7.5.4.Washing Soda and Its Uses 4.7.6 Salt Crystals – Water of Crystallization eg: CuSO4 .5H2O, Plaster of Paris 4.7.7 Plaster of Paris

# 5 - Refraction of light at Plane Surface

 5.1 Refraction and Its Laws 5.1 Refraction and Its Laws 5.2 Refractive Index 5.3 Relative Refractive Index 5.3.1 Snell’s Law 5.4 Total Internal Reflection and Its Applications (Mirages) 5.5 Application of Total Internal Reflection 5.6 Reflection through a Glass Slab 5.6.1 Refraction through a Thin Slab

# 6 - Refraction of Light at Curved Surface

 6.1 Refraction of Light through Lenses and Prisms by using Fermat Principle 6.1 Refraction of Light through Lenses and Prisms by using Fermat Principle 6.1.1 Image Formation 6.2 Concave Lenses 6.2.1. Convex Lenses 6.3 Rules for Ray Diagram for Concave Lens 6.3.1. Rules for Ray Diagram for Convex Lens 6.4 Images Formed by the Concave Lens 6.4.1. Images Formed by the Convex Lens 6.5 Formula for Derived for Thin Lenses 6.5.1 Applications

# 7 - Human Eye and Colorful World

 7.1 Least Distance of Distinct Vision 7.1 Least Distance of Distinct Vision 7.2 Structure of Human Eye 7.3 Common Defects of Vision – Myopia, Hypermetropia, Presbyopia 7.4 Prism 7.5 Dispersion 7.5.1 Rainbow 7.6 Scattering of Light

# 8 - Structure of Atom

 8.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum 8.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum 8.2 Atomic Spectrum 8.3 Planck's Theory 8.3.1. Einstein’s Theory 8.3.1. Einstein’s Theory 8.3.1. Einstein’s Theory 8.3.1. Einstein’s Theory 8.3.1. Einstein’s Theory 8.3.2 Bohr's Theory 8.4 Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle – Functions 8.4.1 Probability Functions 8.4.2. Probability Diagrams - Orbitals 8.5 Quantum Numbers 8.6 Main Shells, Sub-Shells and Orbitals in Different Sub-Shells 8.7 Electronic Configuration of Elements in their Atoms 8.8. n l x rule, Energies of Electronic Energy Levels (n+l) Rule 8.8.1. Aufbau Principal, Paulis Principal, Hund’s Rule of Maximum Multiplicity, Stable Configurations.

# 9 - Classification of Elements

 9.1 Need for Arrangement of Elements in an Organized Manner 9.1 Need for Arrangement of Elements in an Organized Manner 9.1.1 Historical background of Classification of Elements 9.2. Doberieners Triads 9.3 Newland’s Law of Octaves 9.4 Mendeleev’s Periodic Table 9.5 Modern Periodic Table. 9.5.1 Position of Elements in Modern Periodic Table 9.5.2 Trends in Modern Periodic Table

# 10 - Chemical Bonding

 10.1 Chemical Bond Definition 10.1 Chemical Bond Definition 10.2 Electronic Theory of Valence by Lewis and Kossel 10.2.1 Octet Rule 10.3 Ionic and Covalent bonds: examples with Lewis Dot Formulae 10.4 Shapes and Bond Lengths in Molecules 10.5 Valence Bond Theory – examples like H2 , Cl2 , H2O, BF3 , CH4 , NH3 , C2H6 , C2H4 , C2H2 etc 10.6 Hybridization and Explanation of H2O, BF3 , CH4 , NH3 etc., Molecules 10.7 Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds

# I2 - Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

 12.1 Magnetic Field – Field Lines 12.1 Magnetic Field – Field Lines 12.1 Magnetic Field – Field Lines 12.1 Magnetic Field – Field Lines 12.2 Magnetic Field due to Currents 12.2.1 Duet to Current Carrying Wire 12.2.2 Due to Circular Loop 12.3 Solenoid 12.4 Magnetic Force on Moving Charged Particle and Long Straight Conductors 12.4.1 Fleming’s Left Hand Rule 12.5 Electric Motor 12.6 Electromagnetic Induction – Faraday’s Law (including Magnetic Flux) 12.7 Generators and Alternating Currents 12.8 Latent Heat; Changes of Phases, Condensation, Fog and Cloud, Boiling, Melting 12.8 Latent Heat; Changes of Phases, Condensation, Fog and Cloud, Boiling, Melting 12.8 Latent Heat; Changes of Phases, Condensation, Fog and Cloud, Boiling, Melting 12.8 Latent Heat; Changes of Phases, Condensation, Fog and Cloud, Boiling, Melting 12.8 Latent Heat; Changes of Phases, Condensation, Fog and Cloud, Boiling, Melting

# 13 - Metallurgy

 13.1 Occurrence of Metals 13.1 Occurrence of Metals 13.2 Extractions of Metals – Activity Series and Related Metallurgy, Flow Chart of steps involved in the Extraction of Metals from Ore. 13.2 Extractions of Metals – Activity Series and Related Metallurgy, Flow Chart of steps involved in the Extraction of Metals from Ore. 13.2 Extractions of Metals – Activity Series and Related Metallurgy, Flow Chart of steps involved in the Extraction of Metals from Ore. 13.3 Enrichment of Ores 13.4 Extracting Metals Low in the Activity Series 13.5 Extracting Metal in the Middle of the Activity Series 13.6 Extracting Metal in the Top of the Activity Series 13.7 Refining Metals 13.7.1 Electrolytic Refining 13.8 Corrosion – Prevention of Corrosion

# 14 - Carbon and Its Compounds

 14.1 Introduction 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Bonding in Carbon including Hybridization 14.3 Allotropes of Carbon (Diamond, Graphite and C60) 14.4 Versatile nature of Carbon 14.4.1 Catenation and Tetra Valency 14.4.2 Chains, Branches and Rings 14.5 Saturated and Unsaturated Carbon Compounds 14.5.1 Bonding of Carbon with Other Elements 14.6 Functional Groups in Carbon Compounds 14.7 Homologous Series (Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes) 14.7 Homologous Series (Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes) 14.8 Nomenclature of Carbon Compounds 14.9 Chemical properties of carbon compounds 14.9.1 Combustion (Blue and Sooty flame observed in Carbon Compounds, Exothermic) 14.9.2 Oxidation (Alcohol to Acids) 14.9.3 Addition Reaction 14.9.4 Substitution Reaction 14.10 Important Carbon Compounds 14.10.1 Ethanol 14.10.2 Ethanoic Acid 14.10.3 Properties of Ethanol – General Properties, Reaction of Ethanol with Sodium, Reaction with Hot Concentrated Sulfuric Acid. 14.10.3 Properties of Ethanol – General Properties, Reaction of Ethanol with Sodium, Reaction with Hot Concentrated Sulfuric Acid. 14.10.3 Properties of Ethanol – General Properties, Reaction of Ethanol with Sodium, Reaction with Hot Concentrated Sulfuric Acid. 14.10.3 Properties of Ethanol – General Properties, Reaction of Ethanol with Sodium, Reaction with Hot Concentrated Sulfuric Acid. 14.10.4 Properties of Ethanoic Acid – General Properties, Esterification Reaction, Reaction with a Base, Sodium Hydroxide, Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate 14.10.4 Properties of Ethanoic Acid – General Properties, Esterification Reaction, Reaction with a Base, Sodium Hydroxide, Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate 14.10.4 Properties of Ethanoic Acid – General Properties, Esterification Reaction, Reaction with a Base, Sodium Hydroxide, Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate 14.10.4 Properties of Ethanoic Acid – General Properties, Esterification Reaction, Reaction with a Base, Sodium Hydroxide, Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate 14.10.4 Properties of Ethanoic Acid – General Properties, Esterification Reaction, Reaction with a Base, Sodium Hydroxide, Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate 14.10.4 Properties of Ethanoic Acid – General Properties, Esterification Reaction, Reaction with a Base, Sodium Hydroxide, Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate 14.11 Soaps – Saponification, Micelles